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Alternative fuels and alternative raw materials are waste materials from industrial processes or households that cannot be recycled or reused but can be implemented in other production processes as substitutes for the natural resources.

Cement production is a waste-free process. The use of alternative fuels and raw materials is a common fact in the cement industry worldwide and is most widespread in Western Europe with plants using 75-100% alternative fuels and 40-60% alternative raw materials. This is of exceptional benefit tor the environment, for the local population and for the competitiveness of the entire cement sector.

Cement production is most suitable for implementing alternative fuels and raw materials. This is due to the high temperatures of 2000 °C, the oxidation environment and the prolonged keeping of the gases for more than 5 seconds.

The production of clinker is the most suitable process that can be used for neutralizing materials with heavy metal content. These heavy metals bind in the crystalline structure of the clinker and stay there forever.

As long as the cement industry keeps on manufacturing clinker under the viable production conditions in using alternative fuels and raw materials it will play an important role in solving society’s problems with wastes and reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Currently TITAN Zlatna Panega Cement substitutes 10% of its main fuel, which is coal, with used tires. The company is working very intensely on several projects to lower coal consumption by 50% by 2015. This will save about 35000 tons of coal and approximately 50000 tons of carbon dioxide each year. The investments made for this initiative so far amount to EUR 5 000 000. The projects include: installation for preparing and supplying alternative fuels, installation for supplying sludge from treatment plants and meat and bone meal, inquiring for biomass supplies, as well as locally grown biomass on deserted and exhausted soils.

Used tires – currently Zlatna Panega Cement has two operating lines for supplying used tires to the two kilns of the plant.

RDF (refuse derived fuels) – these are fuels made of selected waste materials such as plastic, paper, rubber, textile that CANNOT be recycled or reused. These materials are cut into small pieces and then they are homogenized and fed to the kiln burners.

Biomass – СО2 neutral

The first type of biomass includes waste materials from industrial processes such as meat and bone meal from slaughter houses and sediments from waste water treatment plants.

The second type of biomass are the waste materials from agriculture such as rice chaffs, residual wood from the wood-cutting industry, energy crops or fast-growing trees cultivated on exhausted lands. Energy crops are perennial, do not need fertilizers and pesticides, grow deep roots and thus improve the quality of the soil.

Alternative raw materials

These are waste raw materials used as a substitute of the natural raw materials for the production of clinker or as a cement additive. Waste raw materials substitute natural raw materials such as Са, Si, AlandFe, which are the main ingredients of clinker. The cement additives replace the natural gypsum with industrial gypsum or improve its characteristics.

Scaling (Fe additive)

Fly Ash (cement additive)

Wet Ash (cement additive)

Industrial Gypsum (cement additive)

Steal Slag

For example, if you throw your old car in the landfill you will waste the metal that car is made of, but if you recycle the car will save new metal mining, processing and energy and will use the same metal for another car to be produced.


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